翻譯研究部

[譯文]金磚國家帶來的挑戰

時間:2014-7-31 15:03:23  作者:轉載  來源:轉載  查看:1757  評論:0
內容摘要:巴西、俄羅斯、印度、中國和南非的金磚國家組織領導人,宣布成立金磚國家發展銀行,目的是挑戰美國領導的世界經濟秩序。美國和歐洲應該注意的是,因為沒有迎合這些國家的野心,這些國家決定不再受西方制度的束縛。

On July 15, the leaders of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa — the BRICS group of nations — announced the creation of the New Development Bank aimed at challenging the American-led global economic order. The United States and Europe should take note that these nations are determined not to be constrained by Western institutions that fail to accommodate their ambitions.
在7月15日,巴西、俄羅斯、印度、中國和南非的金磚國家組織領導人,宣布成立金磚國家發展銀行,目的是挑戰美國領導的世界經濟秩序。美國和歐洲應該注意的是,因為沒有迎合這些國家的野心,這些國家決定不再受西方制度的束縛。

The frustrations of this five-nation bloc are understandable, if somewhat divergent. Brazil and India blame the West’s 2008 financial crisis for sapping economic growth. South Africa and India need capital for infrastructure development, preferably without conditions imposed by the International Monetary Fund or World Bank. China, whose economy is expected to surpass that of the United States as the world’s biggest sometime soon, doesn’t see why its currency shouldn’t replace the American dollar in a good portion of global transactions. Russia, ousted from the Group of 8 and facing Western economic sanctions following its annexation of Crimea and support for rebels in Ukraine, is working to build closer relationships with China and the rest of its fellow BRICS.

五國集團所受的挫折時可以理解的,他們是覺醒了的國家。巴西和印度譴責西方2008年的經濟危機消弱了其經濟增長。南非和印度的基礎設施建設需要資本,更加期望于國際貨幣基金組織的無條約貸款。中國,經濟預期將很快超過美國成為最大的經濟體,想讓它的貨幣為何在國際貿易中以合理的比例替代美元。俄羅斯,被驅逐出8國集團,因吞并克里米亞和支持烏克蘭叛軍而面臨著西方國家的經濟制裁,努力構建著與中國和其他金磚國家更緊密的關系。

The BRICS contain 40 percent of the world’s population and account for 20 percent of global economic output, yet only Europeans and Americans have led the I.M.F. or the World Bank. The United States Congress has contributed to frustration by refusing to pass legislation to shift voting power more fairly among I.M.F. member states — even though this would cost the United States nothing.

金磚國家組織包含40%的世界人口,20%的世界經濟產出,目前只有歐洲和美國領導著I.M.F.和世界銀行。美國國會決定拒絕通過將其在國際貨幣基金組織的投票權的和其他I.M.F.成員國家更加公平分享的制度,盡管這不耗費美國任何事情。

China represents 70 percent of the collective gross national product of the BRICS. A China Development Bank already exists, and China is creating its own Asian Development Bank. The New Development Bank will be based in Shanghai. India will assume the presidency of the bank for the first six years, followed by rotating terms for Brazil and Russia, but how this will counterbalance China’s economic clout is far from clear.

中國占據了金磚國家70%GDP。中國發展銀行已經存在,并且中國正在創建器自己的亞洲發展銀行。新的發展銀行總部在上海。印度出任首任為期六年的銀行總裁,然后巴西和俄羅斯輪換。但是這會如何抵消中國的經濟影響力尚不明確。

The bank will begin with an initial capital of $50 billion, rising to $100 billion, with a separate $100 billion Contingent Reserve Arrangement. The BRICS plan to bring in other developing countries in Africa and Asia, and they are talking about creating a regional-security alternative to NATO.

金磚國家發展銀行起始啟動資金為500億美元,將增加到1000億美元,另外有1000億美元的儲備金。金磚國家組織還將吸收非洲和亞洲的其他發展中國家,他們還將討論創建除NATO(北大西洋公約組織)的地區安全組織。

The BRICS nations have quite different political systems. Russia and China, for instance, are authoritarian regimes; India and Brazil are democracies. Some of them may be more willing than others to observe international norms on, say, human rights, and some may be more inclined to condition investments on environmental protection. It will be interesting to see how these differences play out in the bank’s governance and operations.

金磚國家有著相當不同的政治系統。例如,中國和俄羅斯,目前是集權國家;印度和巴西是民主國家。他們其中有些較其他更關注例如人權和投資環境保護、自然環境保護的國際問題。觀察這些不同在金磚發展銀行的管理和操作中的影響將是很有趣的事情。
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