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[譯文]印度正在制定戰略,再次沖擊NSG成員資格

時間:2018-6-3 10:01:58  作者:轉載  來源:轉載  查看:602  評論:0
內容摘要:India is mounting another strong bid for admission to the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), an elite club of 48 countries that deal with fissil...

India is mounting another strong bid for admission to the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), an elite club of 48 countries that deal with fissile materials and nuclear technology, which is set to meet in June and December this year, three persons familiar with the hectic diplomatic activities on the matter said on condition of anonymity.
印度再次強烈要求加入核供應國集團(NSG),該核心供應國集團是48個國家的精英俱樂部,涉及裂變材料和核技術.NSG將于今年6月和12月召開會議,三名不愿透露姓名的人士就此事忙著進行外交活動。

The NSG is the only major export control regime India is not part of after its entry into the Australia Group (January 2018), the Missile Technology Control Regime (June, 2016) and the Wassenaar Arrangement (December 2017).
NSG是印度在進入澳大利亞集團(2018年1月),導彈技術控制制度(2016年6月)和瓦塞納爾安排(2017年12月)后唯一尚未參加的出口控制制度。

Being a member of the NSG would be shot in the arm for the Narendra Modi government and a major policy achievement ahead of the next general elections in 2019.
作為核供應國集團的成員,將為納倫德拉莫迪政府2019年下屆大選之前取得重大外交成就。

The issue of India’s entry came up for discussion at the Seoul plenary of the NSG last June, but Beijing did not agree on the grounds that India was not a signatory to the non-proliferation treaty (NPT). Though other countries also raised objections to Indian membership, India said “one country” consistently raised procedural hurdles, in an oblique reference to China. Beijing backed a two-step approach which stipulates that the NSG members first need to arrive at a set of principles for the admission of non-NPT states into the NSG and then move forward with the discussions on specific cases.
去年6月,印度進入NSG的首爾全會上討論了印度問題,但北京方面不同意印度因為其不是簽署不擴散條約(NPT)的國家。盡管也有其他國家也對印度的成員國提出了反對意見,但印度表示,“一個國家”一直提出程序性障礙,這是對中國的一種偏袒[譯者:意思是中國濫用否決權]。北京支持兩步走,即規定NSG成員首先需要達成一系列將非NPT國家納入NSG的原則,然后繼續討論具體案例。

Officials said that fresh talks between Indian and Chinese officials on the issue were “forward looking”. Former foreign secretary Lalit Mansingh suggested China had blocked India’s entry primarily on account of the strain in bilateral ties. “There is a perceptible change in the bilateral ties after Modi meeting President Xi Jinping in Wuhan on April 27 and 28. So if China withdraws its objection, India could be a member of NSG,” he said.
官員們表示,印度和中國官員就這個問題進行的新一輪前瞻性談判。前外交部長辛格表示,中國因為雙邊關系緊張而阻止了印度的進入。 “4月27日和28日在武漢峰會,雙邊關系發生了明顯變化。因此,如果中國撤回反對,印度可能成為NSG的成員國。

The road to the NSG membership is paved with uncertainties since the group works on the principle of consensus and even one country holding out could block the chances of entry.
由于該小組以協商一致的原則開展工作,甚至有一個國家堅持可以阻止印度進入,因此印度通向NSG成員國的道路充滿不確定性。

Keeping this in mind, India is working on a three-prong strategy, another officials said.
記住這一點,另一位官員說,印度正在制定三重策略。

One, India is telling its close friends in the club to work with others to get India admitted. Two, India is trying to dispel the notion that countries such as Brazil, Argentina, Kazakhstan, and South Africa -- which once gave up their nuclear programme -- could cite any procedural issues to not admit India. Three, India is stressing that the process of admission is “merit-based” and not “criteria -based”, as advocated by China and supported in the past by Austria, New Zealand and Mexico.
其一,印度正在告訴NSG的親密朋友與其他人合作讓印度獲得承認。二,印度正試圖消除巴西​​,阿根廷,哈薩克斯坦和南非等曾放棄核計劃的國家可以引用任何程序問題而抵制認印度的觀點。三,印度強調中國提出的而且奧地利,新西蘭和墨西哥支持的“基于優點”而不是“基于標準”的準入方案。

“We have been in touch with our friends and partners for our NSG bid. We are not a member of the group. But we hope to the there soon, as we hope the grouping factors in our track record in non-proliferation and a clean waiver that the NSG had given us in 2008”, said an official who asked not to be named.
“我們一直與我們的朋友和合作伙伴聯系,以獲取我們的NSG資格。我們不是該組織的成員。但是我們希望很快能夠到達,因為我們希望我們在防擴散方面的業績記錄因素以及2008年NSG給我們的清潔豁免“,一位不愿透露姓名的官員說。[譯者:clean waiver不知道是什么意思]


The merit-based approach means India’s non-proliferation track record should be factored in. The criteria-based approach means the grouping must first decide how to accommodate non-NPT (Non-Proliferation Treaty) countries as members. India is a not a signatory to the NPT and maintains the pact is discriminatory in nature.
基于績效的方法意味著應將印度的防擴散記錄納入考慮。基于標準的方法意味著分組必須首先決定如何使非NPT(不擴散條約)國家成為成員國。印度不是“不擴散核武器條約”的簽署國,并且認為該條約具有歧視性。

India has been urging the US and Russia to work with other countries to help its membership. The Netherlands, too, agreed to work with other NSG members for India’s membership during the between Prime Minister Modi and his Dutch counterpart Mark Rutte on May 24.“In order to further strengthen global non-proliferation, the Netherlands reaffirmed its strong support to building consensus among the regimes’ members on the issue of India’s membership to the Nuclear Suppliers Group; recognizing that India’s accession will add value to the aims and objectives of these regimes,” read the joint statement issued after the meeting.
印度一直在敦促美國和俄羅斯與其他國家合作來幫助其成為NSG成員。在5月24日總理莫迪與其荷蘭外交部長馬克魯特會談,荷蘭也同意與其他NSG成員合作推動印度加入。“為了進一步加強全球防止核武器技術擴散,荷蘭重申其強烈支持NSG成員國就印度加入核供應國集團達成共識所作的努力;認識到印度的加入將為這些制度的目的和目標增加價值“,詳見會后發表的聯合聲明。

This was a step forward from the last year’s India-Netherlands joint statement, which had simply said: “The Netherlands expressed its support for India’s early membership to the Nuclear Suppliers Group.”
這是去年印度 - 荷蘭聯合聲明的一個前菜,該聲明只是說:“荷蘭表示支持印度加入核供應國集團。”

Switzerland, the chair of the NSG for 2017-18 with Ambassador Benno Laggner as its representative, also supports India’s membership.
作為2017-18年度NSG的主席,Benno Laggner大使擔任其代表,瑞士也支持印度獲取成員資格。

In additional, there have been visits to some NSG countries by Indian ministers in recent weeks. Minister of state for external affairs MJ Akbar met Austrian Federal Minister for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs Karin Kneissl in Vienna on May 15. The other minister of state in the ministry, VK Singh, was in Argentina, another NSG country, to attend G20 meet on May 18-19 and India hosted the foreign minister of Serbia on May 1.
此外,最近幾周印度部長還訪問了一些NSG成員國。外交部長于5月15日在維也納會見了奧地利聯邦歐洲部部長歐洲一體化和外交事務部Karin Kneissl。該部另一位國務部長VK Singh將與NSG另一個成員國阿根廷在參加G20會議的5月18日至19日舉行會議,5月1日印度會見塞爾維亞外長。

“Though there could be some others with reservations on India’s entry. But none of them could be seen as the last one standing in the way,” added a second official on condition of anonymity. A diplomat, who also asked not to be identified, said India was “in touch with Mexico and Brazil, while South Africa has twice reiterated its support for India’s membership”.
“盡管可能有一些人對印度的入場有所保留。 但是他們中的任何一個都不能被視為最后一個阻礙,“另一位不愿透露姓名的官員補充道。 一位不愿透露姓名的外交官說,印度“與墨西哥和巴西保持聯系,而南非則兩次重申支持印度獲取成員資格”。



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